Friday, 11 May 2012

...:::SURROGACY @ SURROGATE MOTHER:::...:::IBU TUMPANG:::....


:::SURROGACY:::



Introduction


Surrogacy is the practice whereby one woman carries a child for another with the intention that the child should be handed over after birth. Agreements may be reached between strangers, usually involving the payment of expenses, or a woman may offer to act as a surrogate for a friend or relative.


Definition of Surrogacy

The word ‘surrogate’ means ‘substitute’ and a surrogate mother is someone who has a child for another woman.
The basic idea of surrogacy is that one woman (the surrogate) has a baby for a husband and wife (or partners), where the wife is infertile.
The surrogate is artificially inseminated with the husband’s sperm. When the baby is born, the surrogate mother gives it to the husband and wife (the commissioning parents).
In this case, the child is genetically half-related to the husband and wife but, there is also a genetic relationship with the surrogate mother and this is known as a partial surrogacy.


Types of Surrogacy


There are three types of surrogacy generally : traditional , gestational & donor.

1) In traditional/partial surrogacy, the woman carrying the baby is the child’s genetic mother. The surrogate mother conceives after she is artificially inseminated with the intended father’s sperm. She then carries the baby to full maturity.
2) In gestational/full surrogacy, the surrogate mother carries a donated embryo. The embryo is conceived through in vitro fertilization or similar methods, of course, with the intended parents’ (you and your husband) productive cells.
In both cases, when the baby comes to term, the surrogate mother relinquishes all parental rights to the baby, and you can then adopt the child.
(3) In donor surrogacy, this kind of surrogacy may be achieved when the commissioning parents obtain sperm and ovum from donors and after fertilization is achieved, the resulting zygote is then implanted into the uterus of surrogate mother.

The Legal Position Of Surrogacy In Malaysia


Under the civil laws, there are no legislations, which directly govern either the act of surrogacy or the status of a child resulting from such an arrangement. The relevant legislation which governs family matters amongst the non-Muslim population in Malaysia is the Law Reform (Marriage and Divorce) Act of 1976 whilst the Muslims are bound by the Shariah Law either those which had been legislated or not.
 But before looking into the provisions of the Law Reform (Marriage and Divorce) Act, 1976, perhaps Section 112 of the Evidence Act 1950, which applies to both Muslims and non-Muslims, could better elucidate or explain to us the possible status of surrogacy in Malaysia. The section provides:
"The fact that any person who is born during the continuance of a valid marriage between his mother and any man, or within 280 days after its dissolution, the mother remaining unmarried shall be conclusive proof that he is the legitimate son of that man, unless it can be shown that the parties to the marriage had no access to each other at any time when he could have been begotten."
Fortunately, to date/until now, there has been no legal claims made for surrogacy arrangements or any other orders pertaining to third party involvement in the reproductive process in Malaysia. For many Malaysians third party involvement in the reproductive process is not an acceptable form of treatment for cases of infertility.
 In a society where importance is placed on marital relationships and on the traditional concepts of the family, Malaysians are very careful when seeking the various forms of assisted reproductive treatment available to them. Assisted reproductive techniques which help married couples obtain their dream of having a child must still be restricted to that which involves sperm taken from the husband and ovum taken from the wife, which is later to be carried by the wife.



The Legal Position of  Surrogacy                                  in the Western Countries


In the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act 2008, section 54. To obtain the order the following must be shown:
Either the sperm, or eggs, or both, came from the commissioning couple.
The commissioning couple must be married, civil partners, or living as partners in an enduring family relationship.
The child must be living with the commissioning couple.
The surrogate must consent to the order.
Any parent of the child must consent to the order.
The court must be satisfied that no prohibited payment has been made, unless authorized by the court.
The applicants have applied within six months of the birth.
The applicants are at least 18 years old.

Arguments For And Against Surrogacy                            

In Favour / For Surrogacy
  • Helps children couples;
  • Encourages altruism, for example, having a child for a friend;
  • Women should be allowed to do what they want with their own bodies(autonomy);
  • Gives life to a child.


Against Surrogacy
  • It is an unnatural practice;
  • It may be seen as selling babies;
  • It may be used for convenience, for example, a woman who does not want the ‘bother’ of pregnancy;
  • It splits up the mother and baby;
  • Women should not sell their bodies for money;
  • Risks of pregnancy to the surrogate mother;
  • Harm caused if the surrogate mother keeps the child;
  • A child has a right to be brought up by his own parents;
  • It exploits women.

Surrogacy Case


In the case of the West, spouse of William Stern and his wife Elizabeth who had no children want the womb of a woman for that. The couple had hired Mary Whitehide of $20 thousand dollars. Then the sperm into the uterus Stern Mary. At the time of birth her ​​baby, Mary's maternal instinct to rebel, and he refused to surrender the baby to Stern and his wife. Eventually the matter was brought before the courts that consider this as a problem of social transactions.

Based on their agreement, the court decided the baby must be submitted to the Stern family. When Stern and five police officers arrived at the home of Mary, she acted with her ​​baby escaped through the back door. Eventually he was caught in another city, and the baby is taken and submitted to the family of Mr. Stern.




Surrogacy Issue According To Islamic Perspective


The decision of the 80th Muzakarah (Conference) of the Fatwa Committee National Council of Islamic Religious Affairs Malaysia held on 1st- 3rd February 2008 has discussed on the ruling obtaining the service of surrogate mother to have a child. The Committee has decided that surrogacy is forbidden in Islam even if the sperm and ovum were taken from a married couple as this will bring genetic confusion to the unborn baby. 
However, here are several clarification on this issue,
  • First, consanguinity uncertainty is the greatest aspects of the birth of a baby who was conceived by a surrogate mother. A surrogate mother of English woman with white skin for example can give birth to a Negro baby who black skin or otherwise. 
  • Second, development of the medical world in the field of fertility treatment technology to assist in reproduction although many benefits but can cause confusion appears and descendants of the family environment. Through the services of a surrogate mother, the baby is conceived and born with a genetic relationship or no blood relationship with the mother because the egg and sperm are belonging to others.
  • Third, so far, there is  no obvious law that restrict the methods of infertility treatment which use the services of a surrogate mother.
  • Forth, in some European countries, demand rate of using the services of a surrogate mother is riser and worried that this phenomenon will spread to this country.
  • Fifth, apart from the method of surrogate mothers, there is also a medical method using the fluid of the bone marrow to help married couples who are infertile, barren  or failed to acquire children through natural methods.
  • Sixth, medical methods introduced by the West have gradually managed to persuade the public that the mother of the baby's status does not necessarily held by women who have pregnant and childbirth, as well as the status of the father is not necessarily by the man who has  contributed his seed or has been a husband of a woman who is pregnant a baby of his flesh and blood.
Conclusion

It is important to keep the issue of surrogacy in perspective. Surrogacy arrangements are rare. Most would be mothers want to give birth to their own children and so surrogacy is likely to be a last resort for woman. Surrogacy may be the only option for men who do not want to reproduce with a female partner, but again, demand does not seem to be great. Nevertheless, despite its rarity, surrogacy does raise some complicated legal questions, such as who should be considered the child’s parents, and what should happen if the arrangement break down. Banning surrogacy altogether is not a realistic option, because partial surrogacy arrangements can be made without any third-party involvement.

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Post a Comment

7 comments:

  1. minta izin pinjam satu gambar ye, untuk buat presentation

    ReplyDelete
  2. ye dipersilakan........... thanx 4 visiting my blog dear... ;-)

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  4. Surrogacy is the arrangement by which a woman conceives, carries and delivers a child for another couple or individual. This woman is known as a surrogate mother or a gestational carrier. If you are thinking to go INDIA for IVF surrogacy, then you must search for Surrogacy India, Surrogate mother India, IVF India, IVF clinic India & IVF cost india. I found Go Surrogacy for this treatment in India. Hope you also like these.

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  5. Assalamualaikum. Saya nak minta izin ambil satu atau dua gambar utk presentation boleh? :)
    Dan saya nak minta izin guna ayat position surrogacy in Malaysia.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Assalamualaikum. Saya nak minta izin ambil satu atau dua gambar utk presentation boleh? :)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. wassalam... ye saudara... silakan.. ;-) saya pon c&p dr google.. tq n gud luck! (y)

      Delete